To determine the 룸알바 worst-paying jobs for women, 24/7 Wall St. examined differences in weekly median wages for men and women in 150 full-time, year-round occupations, drawn from data in the U.S. Census Bureaus Current Population Survey (CPS), an initiative of the Bureau of Labor Statistics BLS. The new visualization tool also details earnings by gender at the state level, for those interested in wage gaps by gender, by emphasizing the differences in the median earnings of men and women 16 years and older working full-time, year-round jobs over the last 12 months. These data are calculated by looking at median wages for all workers employed full-time, at least 50 weeks a year, so the numbers reflect a number of noteworthy differences in womens and mens labor force participation. This gap does not take into account that men on average work longer hours than women.
The pay gap remains at 9 percent for full-time, year-round workers3, and women are paid less than men in all occupational groups (even ones where women are overrepresented). Meanwhile, men are more likely than women to be employed in high-paying professions, such as managers, directors, and top officials, where women on average make 16% less per hour. Women working as professionals in the fields of training and development make just about two-thirds as much as men in this field earn, among the largest wage gaps in any profession. Women are disproportionately driven from the labor force to take caregiving and other non-wage obligations, and therefore typically have less experience working than men.
Men tend to put in more hours, thereby accruing more experience over years, and the labor market pays better if workers have more experience. Thus, women working part-time, as a group, are slightly more likely to have gone on to college, and much less likely to have dropped out of high school, than men working part-time, who are probably working shorter shifts because they do not have better options. The lack of earnings growth from part-time jobs has particularly large implications for women with higher education, since they typically would have stood to benefit more from higher levels of pay by staying in paid, full-time jobs. It is perhaps no surprise that women are making more money in part-time positions than men, given what may have led one to take a job in part-time.
At the lower end of the part-time spectrum–people working just one or four hours per week–men make 14.3 percent more than women. Differences between men and women in the number of hours worked on an average week also partly account for the gender wage gap. The gender pay gap is the result of a lower rate of wage advancement available to part-time workers — women are the overwhelming majority of those taking on temporary jobs, seeking to find more flexible working arrangements once children are born.
Because retail sales involves a variety of different jobs – with wide-ranging earning potential – the gender pay gap could partly result from men being drawn to those retail jobs which pay the most. The gender wage gap across the top 20 occupations is largest for finance managers, with a 70.7 per cent gender earnings ratio (corresponding to a wage gap of 29.3 per cent, which amounts to $522 dollars less weekly for women than men), while the second-largest gap is for retail salespeople, with a 71.1 per cent ratio (corresponding to a wage gap of 28.9 per cent, or $221 dollars less weekly for women than men). No occupation has a larger wage discrepancy between men and women than personal financial advisers — even though wages for women have increased and wages for men in driving/sales associates and truck drivers have decreased over the past year.
Two of the most common jobs for women – bank tellers and housekeepers and housecleaners (which employ 3.4% of all full-time working women) have weekly average earnings for all workers below the poverty line for a family of four; one of the most common jobs for men – chef – has similar lower weekly average earnings for all workers (with earnings of men slightly above the line). For all occupations considered together, Hispanic women working full-time had the lowest median earnings, $617 a week (55.5 percent of non-Hispanic white mens weekly earnings of $1,111, Table 3).
When including part-time workers, the share of women workers employed in women-dominated occupations is lower, at 38.5 percent; the share of men working in men-dominated occupations is also lower, at 41.8 percent; calculations by the Institute for Research on Womens Policies, based on data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The gap within-occupation means that even when men and women are employed in the same occupation–whether hairdresser, cosmetologist, nurse, teacher, computer engineer, mechanical engineer, or construction worker–men earn more, on average, than women (CPS ORG 2011-2015). Because women typically work fewer hours to fit caregiving and other unpaid obligations, they are also more likely to be employed part-time, meaning hourly wages are lower and benefits are less, than for full-time workers.
The average married womens hourly compensation is lower than that of married men, but the plausible explanation is that if a labor market pays less per hour as hours worked fall, and married women generally work less. In most professions, our study finds, the primary source of the wage gap is in differences in hours worked by women and men, with marital status and parenting explaining nearly all this variation in hours worked. In the U.S., using average hourly earnings statistics (not controlling for differences in work type), differences in compensation compared with white men are largest for Latina women (58% of white mens hourly earnings) and second largest for Black women (65%), whereas the gap is 82% for white women. A 1993 study of graduates from the University of Michigan Law School from 1972 through 1975 examined Hollywoods gender wage gap, matching males and females on possible explanatory factors, such as profession, age, experience, education, amount of time in the labor force, child care, number of hours worked, grades during college, and other factors.